【检验美国高中生英文水平的100个单词】词源解析之一

  • 袁新民博士
  • 2016-07-20 20:50
  • 阅读 57558 评论 0 分享 3 喜欢 3

如果还没有完整看过这 “据说”是【检验美国高中生水平的100个单词】的朋友,先检验一下自己认识多少个,可先点击链接:传说的“检验美国高中生水平的100个单词”

希望在看过解析版后,最少能认识第一个词[偷笑]。

kowtow作为第一个词,也是给大家增加信心的。

尽管只有100个词,但仍然可以找到最少15组同源词,也有含相同构词成分(如后缀-ous-ate等)的不少词。

词源解词必然会涉及音变知识,因前边博文里已经有这方面的内容,故涉及音变的主要在“点”。


1. kowtow 英 [kaʊ'taʊ] 美 [,kaʊ'taʊ]

v. ~ (to sb/sth) to show sb in authority too much respect and be too willing to obey them 叩头;磕头;卑躬屈膝;唯命是从

We will not kowtow to the government.


Europe 英 ['jʊərəp] 美 ['jʊrəp]

(在来源上不确定,传统上一直同Europa“欧罗巴”联系在一起:腓尼基王Agenor阿革诺耳的女儿,被宙斯化作白牛劫到克里特,生下三个儿子。eur=eury宽,op脸,眼,Europa表示宽阔的脸庞、宽额或大眼睛的,作为欧洲大陆,本身的意思为“西”方或“日落”的地方→)

n. 欧洲

European 英 [ˌjʊərə'piːən] 美 [ˌjʊrə'piːən]

(Europe欧洲,-an…的,属于)

a. 欧洲的,欧洲人的

n. 欧洲人

2. euro ['jʊroʊ]

(来自Eurocurrency的缩写和变化,curr跑→移动→流动,-ency 名词后缀;不断流动的东西→currency 货币;通行,流行)

n. a unit of money that can be used in most countries of the European Union 欧元

Prices are given in pounds and euros.


nanometer 其实是“(矮)小”“米”, meter是“米”,音译“纳米”,nano代表“纳”,指的是10-9数量级(one billionth),当然是很“小”了,nano中的o是连接字母,故nan代表“小”,而在普通词汇中,nan代表 little old woman,nunnan比较,仅是元音字母发生变化。

nun [nʌn](来自后期拉丁语 nonna ‘an old woman’)

n. 修女,尼姑

3. nanotechnology 英 [,nænə(ʊ)tek'nɒlədʒɪ] 美 ['nænotɛk'nɑlədʒi]

(nano代表nanometer,technology技术,即:any technology on the scale of nanometers →)

n. 纳米技术

Despite the growing pains, many experts say nanotechnology is catching on much faster than they had expected.


technologytext还有toilet都是简单词,它们都与一个词根tect同源。

text, techn, tect 编织,编造,造

印欧词根形式为* teks-,techntecton均为带后缀的形式。

architect里的tect其实是来自希腊语的tekton “木匠,建造者,制造者”,tect造→带后缀的形式tecton

4. tectonic 英 [tek'tɒnɪk] 美 [tɛk'tɑnɪk]

(tect造→带后缀的形式tecton木匠,建造者,制造者,-ic形容词后缀;属于和建造者、建筑有关的→)

a. 1. of or pertaining to building or construction; constructive; architectural 建筑(学)的;构造的;

  2. (geology) connected with the structure of the earth's surface 【地质学】地壳构造的

...the tectonic plates of the Pacific region which are separating from the East Pacific Ridge.


tauto看起来是不是有些怪异?其实它来自希腊语to auto,其中的to是中性定冠词,意思是the,也与the同源。auto是“自己,自身”,tauto就是the same

dialogue是两个人之间的“对话”,词根为log,还有apology里的loglecture等含同源词根。

印欧词根* leg-“收集,说”对应lex“说”。

希腊语λογος (logos )表示:

  1. 话,话语;
  2. 谈话,对话;
  3. 字,词;
  4. 话题,主题;
  5. 原理,原则,准则,规律。

-logy表示:

  1. …学,…论;2. 说话,语词

所以不要仅限于知道-ology是“…学”,要知道-o- + -logy = -ology,而-logy与词根lect等紧密联系着。

也要明白为什么把nanotechnology, tautology, lexicon要放在一起。

5. tautology 英 [tɔː'tɒlədʒɪ] 美 [tɔ'tɑlədʒi]

(tauto相同的,-logy说话,语词)

n. a statement in which you say the same thing twice in different words, when this is unnecessary, for example 'They spoke in turn, one after the other.' 同义反复;赘述

'The money should be adequate enough' is an example of tautology.


6. lexicon 英 [ˈleksɪkən] 美 [ˈlɛksɪˌkɑn]

(lex(is) 说话,措辞,词语,-ic 形容词后缀,对应希腊语的-ikos,lexicon来自希腊语lexikos的中性,即最后的-on属于语法变化带来的;属于词语的→)

n. 1. technical all the words and phrases used in a language or that a particular person knows (某语言或学科、某人或群体使用的)全部词汇

  2. a list of words on a particular subject or in a language in alphabetical order (某学科或语言的)词汇表

  3. a dictionary, especially one of an ancient language, such as Greek or Hebrew (尤指希腊语或希伯来语等古代语言的)词典, 字典

Chocolate equals sin in most people's lexicon.


a cute little baby 里的cute来自acute,包括acid在内,都含有词根:

ac

印欧词根形式为* ak-

7. acumen 英 [ˈækjəmən] 美 [əˈkjumən, ˈækjə-]

(ac尖→带后缀的形式acu削尖,变锋利,敏锐,-men 名词后缀;理解、判断等尖锐、敏锐→)

n. [U] the ability to understand and judge things quickly and clearly 敏锐; 精明; 聪明

The firm's success is largely due to Brannon's commercial acumen.


化学符号O大家都知道吧?很多酸中都含有“氧”,Antonie Laurent Lavoisier当初认为氧存在于所有酸中,oxygen的字面意思是“产生(gen)酸(oxy)的物质”,酸acid的词根ac与氧oxygen里的oxy为同源词根。

8. oxidize 英 ['ɒksɪdaɪz] 美 ['ɑksə'daɪz]

(oxide=oxide,-ize treat or combine with使与…结合)

vt. (technical) to combine or to make sth combine with OXYGEN, especially when this causes metal to become covered with RUST (使)氧化;(使)生锈(因氧化而形成)

Aluminium is rapidly oxidized in air.

The original white lead pigments have oxidized and turned black.


9. incontrovertible 英 [ˌɪnkɒntrəˈvɜ:təbl] 美 [ˌɪnkɑntrəˈvɜrtəbl]

(in- 不,contro-=contra- 反对,vert转,controvert转向相反→持有相反的观点→反驳,就…展开争论;-ible可…的;不可反驳的→)

a. definitely true and impossible to be proved false 无可争辩的,不容置疑的,无可辩驳的

There is now incontrovertible evidence that the government is violating the agreement.


10. vortex 英 [ˈvɔ:teks] 美 [ˈvɔrteks]

(是vertex的变体,即vort=vert转,-ex名词后缀;风、水等旋转得很快形成的→)

n. (pl 复数作 ~es 或 -tices / -tɪsiːz; -tɪˏsiz/)

  1. (technical) a mass of air, water, etc. that spins around very fast and pulls things into its centre (风或水形成的)旋风,旋涡

  2. (literary) a very powerful feeling, force or situation that you cannot avoid or escape from (感情或局势的)旋涡

I was sucked into a vortex of despair.


want 除了“要”,还有“缺乏,缺少”的意思,词根wan就表示“缺”,“缺”失了就有“空”。

wan(t), van, vain, vac 空,缺

印欧词根形式为*(e)wa-n-“离开,离弃,用完,耗尽”,所以派生词的意思为“被离弃的,缺乏的,空的”。词根为vac, wan等是wa, va等带后缀或扩展的形式。

记得有人区分不了vacationvocation,其实二者最大的区别在词根,词根vac是“空,缺”,空出的一段时间就是vacation

11. vacuous [ˈvækjuəs]

(vac空,u=-uus 形容词后缀,vacu就是拉丁语vacuus空的,-ous有…特性的;头脑里空的→)

a. (formal) showing no sign of intelligence or sensitive feelings 无知的;空洞的; 无意义的

a vacuous remark/question/expression/smile

Male models are not always so vacuous as they are made out to be.

vanish中的也是van空,当然还有vain


12. evanescent 英 [ˌiːvə'nesnt] 美 [ˌevə'nesnt]

(e- out, van 空,-esce开始,-ent形容词后缀;开始变空即消失的→)

a. (literary) disappearing quickly from sight or memory: (fml 文) 瞬间即逝的;迅速遗忘的

Talk is evanescent, writing leaves footprints.


“完全(con-)”“信任(fid)”别人或自己的才是confident“自信的”和“确信的”,因为“信任”才有了fiancé(未婚夫)和fiancée(未婚妻),当然还有faith

Fidius是罗马信用之神。

fid, fed, faith 信任

13. diffident ['dɪfɪdənt]

(dif-=dis- ‘away’ 分离,缺乏,fid信任,-ent形容词后缀;缺乏对自己信任的→)

a. ~ (about sth) not having much confidence in yourself; not wanting to talk about yourself 缺乏自信的;胆怯的;羞怯的

You shouldn't be so diffident about your achievements - you've done really well!


14. fiduciary 英 [fɪˈdju:ʃəri] 美 [fɪˈduʃiˌɛri, -ʃəri, -ˈdju-, faɪ-]

(fid信任→拉丁语fiduci(a)信任、信赖,-ary与…有关的(人))

a. relating to the responsibility to look after someone else's money in a correct way 信托的;信用的;(尤指)受信托的,受信托的

n. Fiduciary is used to talk about things which relate to a trust, or to the people who are in charge of a trust.(尤指财产)受信托人(或公司)

They have a case against their directors for breach of fiduciary duty.


中古英语里,head的拼写是heved,古英语的拼写是heafod, 古高地德语是houpit, 现代德语是Haupt

Capital是“首都”,而词根capit就是“头”,它与head的同源关系能看出来吗?

15. precipitous [prɪˈsɪpɪtəs ]

(pre-前,cipit头,-ous有…特性的;头向前即头向下扔、抛下的、头朝下摔下去的地方的→)

a. 1. very steep, high and often dangerous 险峻的; 陡峭的

  2. sudden and great 突然的,骤然的,急剧的

  3. done very quickly, without enough thought or care 草率的,仓促的,贸然的

The stock market's precipitous drop frightened foreign investors.

a precipitous marriage.


capitulate 英 [kəˈpɪtʃuleɪt] 美 [kəˈpɪtʃəˌlet]

(capit头,-ul=-ule 小,capitul 小头→章,节,题头或标题;-ate使形成;使形成即起草投降协议的章节→)

v. ~ (to sb/sth)

  1. 屈服,屈从

  2. 投降

16. recapitulate 英 [ˌri:kəˈpɪtʃuleɪt] 美 [ˌrikəˈpɪtʃəˌlet]

(re- 再,capit 头,-ul=-ule 小,capitul 小头→章,节,-ate使形成;再以章或节叙述→再次重复要点→)

v. (formal) ~ (on sth) ~ sth to repeat or give a summary of what has already been said, decided, etc 扼要重述;概括

Let's just recapitulate the essential points.

Let me just recapitulate (on) what we've agreed so far.